Overview of Education and VET System

The education and Vocational Education and Training (VET) system in Greece is structured and

regulated by the Ministry of Education, Research, and Religious Affairs. It encompasses various

levels of education, from primary to tertiary, and provides opportunities for both academic and

vocational training.

➢ Primary Education:

Compulsory education in Greece starts at the age of 6 and lasts for nine years.

Primary education is divided into two cycles: the first cycle (Grades 1-3) and the second cycle

(Grades 4-6). The curriculum focuses on core subjects such as Greek language, mathematics,

foreign languages, sciences, and social studies.

➢ Secondary Education:

Secondary education in Greece is divided into two stages: Gymnasium (lower secondary) and

Lyceum (upper secondary).

Gymnasium comprises Grades 7-9 and provides a broad general education.

Lyceum comprises Grades 10-12 and offers different streams, including academic, vocational, and

artistic tracks. The academic track prepares students for university studies, while the vocational

track combines general education with specialized vocational training.

➢ Vocational Education and Training (VET):

VET programs in Greece aim to provide students with practical skills and knowledge for specific

occupations. VET is available at the upper secondary level through specialized vocational schools

called EPAL (Vocational Lyceums) and through Vocational Training Institutes (IEK).

EPAL offers a three-year program leading to a vocational diploma, providing training in various

fields such as technology, agriculture, commerce, health, and tourism.

IEK offers post-secondary vocational education and training programs, typically lasting two years,

providing a range of vocational qualifications.

➢ Tertiary Education:

Greece has a well-developed higher education system with universities, technological educational

institutions, and higher education institutions offering art-related studies.

Universities provide academic programs in various fields, including humanities, social sciences,

natural sciences, engineering, medicine, and more.

Technological Educational Institutions (TEIs) offer professional-oriented programs in applied

sciences and engineering.

Admission to higher education institutions is based on the National Higher Education Entrance

Examinations (Panellinies).

➢ Lifelong Learning:

Greece promotes lifelong learning through various programs and initiatives to support continuous

education and training for individuals of all ages.

Lifelong learning opportunities include adult education centers, vocational training programs, and

professional development courses.

Current Situation of VET in Greece

In the VET industry in Greece the engineering curricula exhibit a strong focus on technical

professions. The engineering programs offered by Vocational Education and Training institutes

are designed to equip students with the necessary practical knowledge and technical skills

required for successful careers in the field of engineering. These curricula emphasize a hands-on

approach, providing students with practical training and experiential learning opportunities.

Through a combination of theoretical instruction and practical application, the engineering

curricula in VET institutes aim to develop professionals that are able to understand and use

appropriately the core engineering principles and practices. Students are exposed to a wide range

of technical subjects, including mathematics, physics, mechanics, electrical systems, materials

science, and computer-aided design (CAD). The curricula also emphasize the acquisition of

practical skills through laboratory work, workshops, and project-based learning. By focusing on

technical professions, the engineering curricula in VET institutes in Greece aim to prepare

graduates who possess the practical expertise and technical competencies required to meet the

demands of the engineering industry and contribute to Greece’s economic growth and

development. There are also some VET institutions that provide education in other profession

that is considered within the subject of engineering but are more relevant with programming and


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